It is not surprising to see CRISPR recognized with the Nobel this year. CRISPR is a technology that has had an immediate and significant impact because it can quickly, economically, and accurately change the specific DNA sequence in a genome. It contributes to progress in diagnosing human diseases, developing new treatments, and even in agriculture.
1- This discovery contributes to new cancer therapies and may also cure inherited diseases in the future.
2- Before discovering the CRISPR/Cas9 genetics cissors, modification of the genes was time-consuming, difficult, and sometimes an impossible task. However, with this finding, DNA can be changed in a few weeks.
3- While studying Streptococcus pyogenes (bacteria; causes the most harm to humanity), Emmanuelle Charpentier discovered a molecule tracrRNA. The discovery was published in the year 2011.
4- The newly discovered molecule, tracrRNA is part of bacteria’s ancient immune system, CRISPR/Cas. It disarms viruses by cleaving their DNA.
5- After this discovery, Charpentier and Doudna collaborated to recreate the bacteria’s genetic scissors in a test tube.
6- The genetic scissors were reprogrammed by the duo in an epoch-making experiment. Both of them proved that genetic scissors can be controlled and can cut any DNA molecule at a predetermined site.
1- The discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 genetic scissors in 2012 by Charpentier and Doudna has proved to be helpful in several other discoveries.
2- It has helped the plant researchers to produce crops that can withstand mold, pests, and drought.
3- With its help, new cancer therapies are underway.
4- In the near future, the inherited diseases will also be cured by altering DNA.
Modified from https://www.jagranjosh.com/general-knowledge/nobel-prize-in-chemistry-for-genome-editing-1602074524-1 on 07 October, 2020